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Figure 5. 4). was calculated based on the fatty acid composition using Eq. [33,36] It is necessary to know the value of critical temperature of oil and the molecular weight to make predictions using Eötvös equation. Overall, the Eötvös equation overestimates the surface tension value at lower temperatures (23 and 40°C) and underestimates the surface tension at higher temperatures (140–200°C). [11] However, oil consumption poses significant health problems such as coronary heart diseases, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension, and is irreconcilable with consumer’s awareness toward the consumption of healthier and low fat food products. The main mechanisms proposed to govern the oil absorption during frying are water escape and oil uptake; capillary pressure; vapor pressure and vacuum effect; diffusion, adherence and drainage of oil on the food surface. 5). Eötvös constant () is the measure of entropy of the surface and its value was calculated using the method of least squares. Measurements were performed in triplicate. [6,8] The most commonly used oils for frying include: Canola, corn, cottonseed, olive, palm, peanut, soybean, safflower, and sunflower. Smucker Co.; Orrville OH, USA), peanut oil (LouAna, Ventura Foods, LLC; Brea CA, USA) and corn oil (Mazola, ACH Food Companies, Inc.; Memphis TN, USA) were purchased from a local market. Surface tension was modeled as a function of temperature using the semi-empirical Eötvös equation (Eq. Comparison between density experimental values of A) Canola oil, and B) Soybean oil and their corresponding predicted values by the modified Racket equation. Viscosity of the oils was modeled up to 200°C using the modified Andrade equation (Eq. The mathematical models developed can thus be used to predict the change in physical properties of oil at high temperatures; specially for controlling process parameters during frying, spray drying, dairy processing or atomization during biodiesel production. The oil type influenced the density and viscosity of oil, but did not affect surface tension. Density of soybean, canola, corn, peanut and olive oil was measured by the Archimedean method from room temperature to 200°C (except olive oil, 180°C) (Table 2). Archimedean method has been successfully used to determine density of liquids at high temperatures (molten igneous rocks) [21]; however it has not been used to measure densities of food oils. Figure 1. Parameters , and corresponding to the modified Andrade equation used to predict the viscosity of each vegetable oil. [23] measured the interfacial tension of olive oil and palm oil at room temperature after repeated frying cycles using the pendant drop technique, and found a dynamic decrease in interfacial tension values for both oil types. 11), irrespective of the type of oil used. Conversions between dynamic and kinematic viscosities were done using the following equation: 12. where is the kinematic viscosity (), is the dynamic viscosity (), and the density () at the selected temperature. Thus, frying has a significant effect on surface tension of oil and the effect needs to be predicted at high temperatures to gain a better understanding of oil absorption. Viscosity as a function of temperature was modeled using the modified Andrade equation (Eq. According to the data, the Eötvös equation has a higher accuracy of prediction of surface tension between 60–100°C, as the error was less than five percent in this temperature range for all five oils. According to the US Department of Agriculture [12], world vegetable oil consumption has increased from 151.68 to 177.16 million metric tons from 2011/12 to 2015/16. [22], Miller et al. Oil: Temperature (°C) Absolute viscosity … The experimental and predicted data were observed to follow a similar trend with increase in temperature (Fig. While oil viscosity and density as affected by temperature and oil composition have received some attention, the surface tension of oils at frying temperatures in pure or mixed systems has not been studied to a great extent. Hence, the focus of this study is to understand the change in the oil physical properties at high temperatures, to better predict the effect of parameters affecting oil absorption at frying temperatures. 3). In general, the studies concluded that the viscosity in edible vegetable oils and their blends, like all Newtonian fluids, … Intercept (), slope () and correlation coefficient () values corresponding to the empirical equation to predict surface tension of each vegetable oil. Ziaiifar et al. Acetone was used to clean all surfaces before and after each experiment to avoid contamination; surfaces were allowed to dry for 1 min before starting a new measurement. Density and surface tension decreased linearly with increasing temperature, whereas the viscosity decreased exponentially. The correction factor () ranges from 0.02 to 0.04 and only depends on oil type, more specifically the molecular weight. [19] Regression analysis showed that there was a linear decrease in density with temperature for all oils (Fig. The surface tension data was also modeled using the predicted density values obtained from the Rackett equation and fitting them in the Eötvös equation. [21] This method uses a solid object of known volume and mass suspended in the test liquid by a wire hanging from a scale.

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